New Educational Strategies in Modern Information Space - 2020
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
Создание условий для учебной коммуникации в контексте цифровых гуманитарных наук
Статья посвящена использованию цифровых гуманитарных подходов к развитию коммуникативных компетенций у студентов на примере образовательной практики Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета. Теоретические аспекты и гипотеза подтверждаются экспериментальными данными.
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University
Digital Humanities Approaches to Design of Learning Communication
The article aimed to present Digital Humanities approaches to communicative competencies development of students on the case of Saint Petersburg State University educational practice. Theoretical aspects and the hypothesis are verified by experimental data.
The current situation is characterized by constant growth of information sources which challenge person to expand innovative communicative competencies. Dynamics of the first two decades of the 21st century can be divided for two stages: pre - Web2.0 (2000-2005) and Web 2.0. (2005-present time). Resources of pre-Web2.0 is open Internet sources that do not provide feedback opportunities. Web 2.0 services, which started in 2005, opened up opportunities for users to independently generate Internet content and evaluate of Web publications.
Development of these communicative competencies is an urgent task, which decision is based on development of the Digital Humanities theory and practice and it is proved by the results of the presented study.
In presented case, the pedagogical design of the course is based on blend of open and corporate resources. Museum Studies and computer science present knowledge fields are pedagogically implemented within the framework of the course. The field of pedagogy is represented by the course design and the teaching methods development.
We believe, that these facts reflect modern trends of eLearning development; however, they do not show a whole picture of development of this form of education. In our opinion, in order to create such picture, it is necessary to find an analogue of the current situation in the educational market, cultural practices and social institution, then to identify niches of aforementioned facts and finally to predict whenever possible trends in their development. The aim can be achieved at an intersection of such theories as Educational Communication , Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) [1,7], Blended Learning Design  and ARCS Concept.
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge theory (TPACK)
The theory reflects the pedagogical aspects of the educational paradigm of the information society. TPACK concept was introduced by Jhon Shulman in 1986  and Punya Mishra and Matthew J. Koehler (2006) . Scholars, teachers and the learning resources' designers support ideas of the researchers. According to this theory, eLearning develops as the intersection of three areas (1) content knowledge, (2) pedagogical knowledge and (3) technological knowledge.
There are three levels of knowledge here. The first is 'pure knowledge'. (1) Content knowledge includes knowledge of concepts, theories, and conceptual frameworks as well as knowledge about methods of developing knowledge. (2) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Pedagogical knowledge includes generic knowledge about how students learn, teaching approaches, ways of assessment and knowledge of different theories about learning (3)Technology Knowledge (TK) refers to an understanding of the way that technologies are used in a specific content domain. This type of knowledge depends on the resource content, so the resource developer sometimes should have knowledge in a technology enhanced, but sometimes he/she needs only a computer literacy.
The second level of knowledge occurs at the intersection of two areas of expertise, namely (4) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (5) Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) and (6) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK).
Pedagogical content knowledge is knowledge about how to combine pedagogy and content effectively. This is knowledge about how to make a subject understandable to learners. Technological content knowledge refers to information about how technology may be used to provide new ways of teaching content. Technological pedagogical knowledge refers to the affordances and constraints of technology as an enabler of different teaching approaches.
The highest level of knowledge is (7) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). It address to the knowledge and understanding of the interplay between CK, PK and TK when using technology for teaching and learning. It includes an understanding of the complexity of relationships between students, teachers, content, practices and technologies .
In our view, the theory gives a whole picture of the education development in information society. It allows solving aforementioned problems. The TPCK provides an idea, that the Content Knowledge is component, which determines technological design and pedagogical methods of e-learning resources. It is obvious, that a course of Mathematics or Fine Arts needs sets of different technological solution and pedagogical activities. Thus, we can see path how wide range of trendy and disparate methods gradually turn into a methodology of information society education.
The concept of learning design occurs in the literature of technology for education with the idea that «designers and instructors need to choose for themselves the best mixture of behaviorist and constructivist learning experiences for their online courses» .
The theory includes a number of widely known ideas, which reflects cognitive, needs, and motivation theories, as well as social elements of learning to address to management of learning process or learners motivation. We would subdivide them into two directions. The first path is focused on modelling of learning actions and careful control of their performance. The second one is concentrated on a learner motivation. There are following concepts among the first direction ADDDIE Model , Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model , Guaranteed Learning .
The center of the second way is a learner motivation. There are ARCS and MOM Models in this group. The motivations theories explain why and how human behavior is activated and directed. There are two kinds of the motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation reflects the desire to do something because it is enjoyable. Extrinsic motivation reflects the desire to do something because of external rewards such as awards, money and praise. The theories incorporate cognitive, needs, and affective concepts as well as social elements of learning to address a learner motivation.
The ARCS theory was created by John Keller in 1980th and includes such components as Attention, Relevance, Confident and Satisfaction . Basically, the model is correspond with Edward Tolman opinion, which presumes that people are motivated to learn if there is value in the knowledge presented (i.e. it fulfills personal needs) and if there is an optimistic expectation for success . We tend to follow the ARCS concept in our theoretical and practical approaches.
Satisfaction is based upon motivation, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Learners must obtain some type of satisfaction or reward from a learning experience. This satisfaction can be from a sense of achievement, praise from a higher-up, or mere entertainment. Feedback and reinforcement are also important elements for satisfaction. To keep learners satisfied, learning environment should be designed to allow them to use their newly learned skills as soon as possible in as authentic a setting as possible.
The Paper Concept and Case
Significant characteristics of actual learning context are expansion of time and space. Training time includes almost the entire conscious life of person, and the space is transformed into an electronic environment which contains a huge amount of multimedia resources. These factors encourage to modification teaching methods and learning environment design. Dramatically important part of the methods is focused on the development of motivation for learning, and learning environment is developed based on a combination of corporate and open resources.
Actual task of the present time is the development of electronic resources and pedagogical techniques of effective interaction of students with different resources. As for educational resources, they should be based on a combination of books, electronic and network materials and contain varied possibilities for interaction of all participants of educational process. In turn, electronic and network-learning resources are subdivided on internal and external files. The internal resources are materials of the university where students train; external materials are Internet and other electronic resources.
Concept of the internal resources is presented in frame of Digital Humanities Concept [2,3,6,8]. For example, network educational resources «Digital Heritage» and «Information Technology in Museums» have been included into the curriculum of Faculty of Arts of St. Petersburg State University. They focus on active use of digital media, which contains the sites of artists, museums, galleries, auction houses, commercial and open source repositories of electronic files, massive open online courses, mobile guides, books etc.
The experiment description
Experience shows, that combination of open and corporate resources within the framework of blended course is a matter of scientific reflection. In terms of pedagogy this phenomena is manifested in the fact that in performing similar assignments, learning adapted resources are analyzed more deeply than scientific and popular science materials. The hypothesis is that students need for educational maintenance to develop competencies aimed at the effective use of open sources for cognitive purposes.
For example, as part of the «Museum Information Systems» course, students are offered assignments for which completed it is necessary to select publications are presented on the following portals: St. Petersburg State University (Black Board), massive open online courses «Coursera» and the UNESCO World Heritage Center. For the assignments performing, students give preference to materials are developed by the teacher and published on BB Portal.
According interview and survey in order to develop students' motivation to work with open resources (Coursera and UNESCO World Heritage Center (UNESCO WHC) portals, pedagogical adaptation of the multimedia materials is necessary. It consists in developing a kind of pedagogical navigator or system of assignments aimed to development competencies of web source application to academic purposes.
The experiment is conducted via this pedagogical navigator obtained showed that students began to use more actively Coursera, but the data of the UNESCO WHC portal remained practically unchanged. This result allows to make following conclusion. It is necessary to use varsities methods of web text research, in particular of linguistic analysis, so that, based on the data obtained, carry out pedagogical measures aimed at increasing students motivation for working with such materials.
The experiment was conducted in 2017/18, 2018/2019, 2019/2020 terms at the Saint Petersburg State University, Chair of Information Systems in Art and Humanities of the Faculty of Arts. f. Fifty three undergraduate students of the third year took part in the experiment. Data of ascertaining stage of the experiment are indicated as Example 1, data on the subsequent stage of the experiment are indicated as Example 2. There are following indicators were taken into account: (1) number of students who used aforementioned multimedia resources and (2) students motivation for the resource accessing.
Interpretation of the experimental results
According interview and discussions with students, motivational stimulus relevant for them were identified. Then these indicators were divided into three groups: 1) mandatory assignments: participation, present worth, learning requirements, positive outcomes, scheduling, (2) positive / neutral expectations of the students: concreteness, inquiry, experience, future usefulness, expectations, unexpected rewards, and (3) negative expectations: variability, difficulty.
The results of the “mandatory assignments” group showed that almost 100% of students made attempts to use all materials in their work. Such qualities of resources as their variability and difficulty forced the students to abandon applying of open resources their tasks before pedagogical adaptation of these materials. However, after developing a «navigator», the attractiveness of the «Coursera» materials were increased. The same dynamics are observed in the group of positive and neutral motivation on regarding of the «Coursera» files.
The results of this study provide comprehension into contemporary issues of eLearning theory and practice. Contrary to what we predicted, a teacher may be very capable to create own learning materials without interdisciplinary approaches and student can use Web sources without any criticism, and they even do not think whether the resources internal or external are.
On the other hand, the insight of theoretical aspects of web-era pedagogics and application those in practices of universities allows to make training more effective and entertaining. It is obvious that linguistic analysis of open resources is asignificant stage in the pedagogical design of a blended learning materials for following reason. Web resources develop according to particular linguistic patterns and neglect of them can neutralize cognitive possibilities of information source vital important for future professionals.
Many people are satisfied with intuitive approach to learning, but many are interested in understanding of consistent patterns of this process. Besides, we are sure, that the theory of eLearning is developing and we consider our article as a contribution to this subject.
One of the main ideas of this paper, for an academic teacher, is the proved necessity of navigating students (learners) through the numerous digital resourses. There is a common misconception among teachers that students who belong to "digital natives" or the "net generation" already possess skills of information analysis and critical comprehension. But still, as the authors prove by their experimental research, there is still a big work to be done in this area.
Уважаемая Ольга Валерьевна, спасибо за комментарий и очень четко обозначенную суть проблемы. Действительно, экспериментальные исследования и включенное наблюдение показывают, что компетенции, связанные с использованием цифровых ресурсов для образовательных и впоследствии профессиональных целей не формируются у представителей цифрового поколения спонтанно. Основные направления развития указанных компетенций-развитие мотивации к обучению в течение жизни, критического мышления и рефлексии саморазвития личности обучаемого.